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HISTORY OF THE WORLD MAP BY MAP HISTORY OF THE WORLD MAP BY MAP FOREWORD BY PETER SNOW 10 PREHISTORY 28 7 MYA–3000 bce THE ANCIENT WORLD 3000 bce–500 ce 12 From apes to farmers 22 The first farmers 30 The first civilizations 62 The Classical Age 14 The first humans 24 Origins of agriculture 32 The first cities 64 16 Out of Africa 26 Villages to towns 34 Egypt of the pharaohs Etruscans and the rise of Rome 18 The first Australians 36 The first writing 66 Rome builds its power base 20 Peopling the Americas 38 Minoans and Mycenaeans 68 Roman Empire at its height 40 Bronze Age China 70 The roots of Indian history 42 Bronze Age collapse 72 Mauryan India 44 The ancient Levant 74 China’s first emperor 46 The Iron Age 76 Terracotta army 48 Assyria and Babylonia 78 50 Rise of the Persian Empire Ancient American civilizations 52 First cities in the Americas 80 Age of migrations 54 The Phoenicians 82 Han Dynasty 56 The Greek city-states 84 The spread of Buddhism 58 Greece and Persia at war 86 The rise of Christianity 60 Alexander the Great CONTENTS DK INDIA DK LONDON Lead Senior Editor Rob Houston Senior Editors Peter Frances, Janet Mohun Editors Suhel Ahmed, Polly Boyd, Claire Gell, Martyn Page, Tia Sarkar, Kaiya Shang, Kate Taylor US Editors Kayla Dugger, Jennette EINaggar Project Management Briony Corbett Managing Editor Angeles Gavira Guerrero Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Cartographers Simon Mumford, Ed Merritt, Martin Darlison, Helen Stirling Senior Art Editors Duncan Turner, Ina Stradins Project Art Editors Steve Woosnam-Savage, Francis Wong Designer Ala Uddin Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa Producer (Pre-production) Jacqueline Street-Elkayam Producer Jude Crozier Managing Art Editor Michael Duffy Art Director Karen Self Design Director Phil Ormerod Senior Editor Dharini Ganesh Editor Priyanjali Narain Assistant Editors Aashirwad Jain, S; hambhavi Thatte Picture Researcher Deepak Negi Picture Research Manager Taiyaba Khatoon Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh Senior Cartographer Subhashree Bharati Cartographer Reetu Pandey Cartography Manager Suresh Kumar Senior Art Editor Vaibhav Rastogi Project Art Editor Sanjay Chauhan, Pooja Pipil Art Editors Anjali Sachar, Sonali Sharma, Sonakshi Singh Assistant Art Editor Mridushmita Bose Managing Art Editor Sudakshina Basu Jacket Designer Suhita Dharamjit Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Vishal Bhatia DTP Designers Ashok Kumar, Nityanand Kumar Production Manager Pankaj Sharma COBALT ID Designer Darren Bland Art Director Paul Reid Editorial Director Marek Walisiewicz 88 146 MIDDLE AGES THE EARLY MODERN WORLD 500 –1450 ce 90 The Middle Ages 120 Rise of the Ottomans 148 The early modern world 92 The Byzantine Empire 122 The Reconquista 150 Voyages of exploration 94 The ascent of Islam 124 96 Rule of the caliphs 126 Tang and Song China 98 The Vikings 128 Medieval Korea and Japan Medieval East Asia 100 The Normans 130 The Mongol conquests 102 The Silk Road 132 104 Medieval renaissance 134 Temple states of Southeast Asia 106 The Crusades 108 The inheritors of Rome 110 112 114 The Hundred Years’ War Medieval European trade The Black Death 116 The emperor and the pope 118 The Holy Roman Empire Yuan China to the early Ming 136 African peoples and empires 138 Mansa Musa 140 The Polynesians 142 North American cultures 144 Aztec and Inca empires First American Edition, 2018 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2018 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC 18 19 20 21 22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–278615–Oct/2018 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-1-4654-7585-5 Printed in Malaysia A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com 152 Spanish conquests in the Americas 154 The Spanish in America 156 The colonization of North America 158 The age of exchange 160 The Renaissance 162 The colonial spice trade 164 Printing 166 The Reformation 168 The Thirty Years’ War 170 British civil wars 172 Reign of the Ottomans 174 East meets West 176 Mughal India 178 1450 –1700 China from the Ming to the Qing 180 Japan unifies under the Tokugawa 182 The Scientific Revolution 184 The Dutch golden age 186 228 REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY 188 The age of revolution 190 Battle for North America 192 The Seven Years’ War 194 The Agricultural Revolution 1700 –1850 216 Romanticism and nationalism 218 The revolutions of 1848 220 New Zealand and Australia 222 The abolition of slavery 196 The Atlantic slave trade 224 Rise of British power in India 198 The American Revolution 226 The Opium Wars 200 South American independence PROGRESS AND EMPIRE 230 Cities and industry 260 Expansion of the US 232 Industrialized Europe 262 Independent Latin America 234 Socialism and anarchism 264 Germany and Italy unified 236 Transport and communications 242 The new imperialism 204 The fate of Native Americans 246 Russian Empire expands 248 Africa colonized 206 The French Revolution 250 Foreign powers in China 208 Napoleon advances 212 The Industrial Revolution 214 Industrial Britain 252 Decline of Qing China 254 Japan transformed 256 The Civil War 258 Science and innovation CONTRIBUTORS CONSULTANTS PREHISTORY David Summers, Derek Harvey PREHISTORY Dr. Rebecca Wragg-Sykes Palaeolithic archaeologist and author, chercheur bénévole PACEA laboratory, Université de Bordeaux THE ANCIENT WORLD Peter Chrisp, Jeremy Harwood, Phil Wilkinson THE MIDDLE AGES, THE EARLY MODERN WORLD Philip Parker REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY Joel Levy PROGRESS AND EMPIRE Kay Celtel THE MODERN WORLD Simon Adams, R. G. Grant, Sally Regan 268 The eve of World War 240 The age of imperialism 244 Resistance and the Raj Napoleon’s downfall 266 Balkan wars 238 Mass migrations 202 The Enlightenment 210 1850 –1914 THE ANCIENT WORLD Prof. Neville Morley Professor of Classics and Ancient History, University of Exeter Prof. Karen Radner Alexander von Humboldt Professor of the Ancient History of the Near and Middle East, University of Munich THE MIDDLE AGES Dr. Roger Collins Honorary Fellow in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh THE EARLY MODERN WORLD, REVOLUTION AND INDUSTRY Dr. Glyn Redford FRHistS, Honorary Fellow, The Historical Association PROGRESS AND EMPIRE, THE MODERN WORLD Prof. Richard Overy FBA, FRHistS, Professor of History, University of Exeter CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN Jennifer Bond Researcher, SOAS, University of London INDIA Prof. David Arnold Professor of Asian and Global History, Warwick University PRECOLUMBIAN AMERICAS Dr. Elizabeth Baquedano Honorary Senior Lecturer, Institute of Archaeology, University College London 270 THE MODERN WORLD 1914–PRESENT 272 The modern world 304 Japan defeated 274 World War I 306 Hiroshima and Nagasaki 276 The trenches 308 Partition of India 278 The wider war 310 The founding of communist China 282 Political extremism 312 Superpowers 284 Aftermath of the Great War 314 The Cold War 286 The Great Depression 316 Korean War 288 China and nationalism 318 Decolonization of Southeast Asia 280 The Russian Revolution 290 Soviet Union under Stalin 292 The Spanish Civil War 320 European unity 294 World War II 322 Decolonization of Africa 296 Axis powers advance 324 Rockets and the space race 298 Occupied Europe 300 The war in the Pacific 326 Civil rights and student revolt 302 Germany defeated 328 The Vietnam Wars SMITHSONIAN Established in 1846, the Smithsonian—the world’s largest museum and research complex—includes 19 museums and galleries and the National Zoological Park. The total number of artifacts, works of art, and specimens in the Smithsonian’s collections is estimated at 154 million, the bulk of which is contained in the National Museum of Natural History, which holds more than 126 million specimens and objects. The Smithsonian is a renowned research center, dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and natural history. 330 US interventions in Latin America 332 Israel and the Middle East 334 Economic boom and environmental cost 336 The collapse of communism 338 War in Yugoslavia 340 Globalization 342 Iran and the Gulf Wars 344 The communication revolution 346 Population and energy 348 Timeline 426 Index 439 Acknowledgments FOREWORD This book tells the story of life on Earth in more meticulous detail and with more arresting pictures than I’ve ever seen before. I believe that in this digital age, maps are more important than ever. People are losing sight of the need for them in a world where our knowledge is reduced to the distance between two zip codes. For me, a journey—certainly the contemplation of a journey—is a voyage across a map. But this beautiful book offers the added dimension of a state-of-the-art journey through time. These maps display the story of the world in delightfully accessible form. They demonstrate in a spectacular way how there is no substitute for the printed page, for the entrancing spread of color across paper that we can touch and feel. The maps are large; the colors are bold. Text boxes spring out from places whose history matters. Clear and easily readable graphics reveal the ups and downs of empires, cultures, wars and other events both human and natural that have shaped our world from the beginning. To me, history without maps would be unintelligible. A country’s history is shaped by its geography—by its mountains and valleys, its rivers, its climate, its access to the sea, and its raw materials and harvests just as much as it is shaped by its population, its industry, its relations with its neighbors and its takeover by invaders from abroad. This book is more than a historical atlas: it describes the ▽ Documenting the world Pages from the Catalan Atlas, drawn and written in 1375, show Europe, north Africa, and Asia. Over time, the maps of cartographers pass into the hands of historians and continue to feed our knowledge of how and why the geography and politics of the world have changed. geography of history but adds revealing pictures as well. For me, the history of World War I is admirably summed up by the map that describes the buildup to it on pages 268–269 and the following maps and accounts of the fighting, including the telling picture of the trenches. I’ve been using maps to tell stories all my life as a television journalist and historian. The stories of the European Union and the collapse of communism were my constant companions when recounting the events of the last half century. That part of recent history only makes sense if it is also described by maps like those on pages 320–321 and 336–337. I have spent many hours as a journalist making maps with graphics artists at the BBC and ITN to illustrate the story of wars in the Middle East and Vietnam. Far better ones are now displayed for us in this book on pages 328–29 and 332–33. No historian can do justice to the story of the rise and fall of the great empires like that of the French Emperor Napoleon without maps like those on pages 208–211. For its depth of learning and its variety of ways of giving us a picture of the history of our planet, this magnificent account—map by map—is second to none. PETER SNOW British broadcaster and historian PREHISTORY BEFORE WRITTEN RECORDS BEGAN AROUND 3000 BCE, THE STORY OF HUMANS WAS RECORDED FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS BY THE FOSSILS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRACES OUR ANCESTORS LEFT BEHIND. 12 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 B c e FROM APES TO FARMERS The history of humankind is rooted in a part of the animal kingdom that includes monkeys, apes, and other primates. It took millions of years of evolution—over countless generations—for apelike ancestors to become modern Homo sapiens. △ Lucy Shown here are the fossilized remains of the apelike Lucy—a member of the genus Australopithecus from east Africa from over 3 MYA. The fossil is sufficiently complete to suggest that Lucy walked upright on two legs. Scientific evidence links all humans to apes. Specifically, chimpanzees are our closest nonhuman relatives, and DNA—the ultimate bloodline indicator—suggests that we separated from a common ancestor some 6.5 million years ago (MYA). Indeed, humans are apes—albeit in an upright, naked form. Monkeys, apes, and humans are primates that have a large brain, grasping digits, forward-facing eyes, and nails instead of claws. Fossilized remains of animals that lived in the distant past provide tantalizing evidence of just how apes became modern humans. Skeletons turn into fossils when they become mineralized into rock—a process that usually takes at least 10,000 years. Fossilized remains are usually fragmentary, but an expertise in anatomy helps scientists use the fossil record to reconstruct extinct species. Fossils can also be dated so scientists can build up a chronology of evolutionary change. For example, African fossils of a primate called Proconsul, dated to 21–14 MYA, resembled a monkey. But it lacked a tail—a feature more typical of apes—suggesting that Proconsul could have been the earliest known member of the ape family. Hominids and hominins Modern great apes (gorillas, orangutans, and chimpanzees), humans, and their prehistoric relatives are united in a biological family called hominids. As well THE RISE OF MODERN HUMANS Even before the emergence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) almost 300,000 YA, hominins had developed the traits that would make them a dominating force on the planet. From just under 1 MYA, hominins were controlling fire— for cooking, and later to help with manufacturing processes. But with Homo sapiens came a more complex culture. Archaeological evidence indicates that these modern humans dispersed widely from their center of origin in Africa before 200,000 YA. “We can see the focus, the center of evolution, for modern humans in Africa.” C H R I S S TR I NG ER , B R ITI S H A NTH ROP OLOG I S T as lacking a tail, they have bigger brains than their monkey ancestors. This meant that many prehistoric hominids doubtless used tools to forage for food—just as chimpanzees do today. Great apes also became bigger than monkeys, and many spent more time on the ground. One group evolved to walk on two legs, which freed grasping hands for other tasks. This group—called hominins—includes humans and their immediate ancestors and dates back at least 6.2–6.0 million years to the species Orrorin tugenensis—a very early bipedal hominin found in Kenya. △ Flint and stone For nearly 2 million years, human technology was represented by stone flake tools and hand axes. These were made by hitting flint or other workable rock with stone to produce sharp cutting edges. The first humans Not all hominins were direct ancestors of living people, but at least one branch of the genus Australopithecus might have been. Belonging to the genus Homo, the first humans were fully bipedal, with arched feet that no longer had opposable grasping toes and an S-shaped spine centered above a wide pelvis. Such adaptations helped them run quickly on open ground. The earliest species— Homo habilis, from 2.4 MYA—may have 185,000 YA Homo sapiens migrates from Africa and into Asia 1.5 million years after the first hominins first left the African continent 135,000–100,000 YA Seashells perforated and used as ornamental beads in Middle East and North Africa are first jewelry—and earliest evidence of drilling DISPERSAL CULTURE TECHNOLOGY 180,000 YA 160,000 YA 165,000 YA Earliest evidence of pigment use at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, for painting or as part of a tool handle 140,000 YA 120,000 YA F RO M A PES TO FA R M ER S ◁ Close cousins Neanderthals—the closest extinct human species to modern humans, Homo sapiens—had larger skulls with more prominent eyebrows. Homo sapiens and Neanderthals were sufficiently similar to interbreed where they coexisted. remained in Africa, but we know that later other Homo species dispersed widely across Eurasia. The rise of Homo sapiens Only one species of human—Homo sapiens—came to dominate the world after emerging from Africa about a quarter of a million years ago. Remarkably, brain capacity doubled between Homo habilis and Homo sapiens. Bigger brainpower meant that humans could skillfully manipulate the environment and resources around them—ultimately leading to the emergence of complex cultures and technologies. For much of its time, Homo sapiens coexisted with other human species. In Ice-Age Eurasia, chunky-bodied Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) successfully lived in a range of environmental conditions, developing their own advanced cultures. But the world’s climate became especially unsuitable, and only Homo sapiens prevailed. They spread farther—reaching Australia by 65,000 YA and South America possibly by 18,500 YA. Evidently, Homo sapiens had the social structures to succeed in ways that their competitors could not. The first modern humans were efficient huntergatherers, inventing new technologies that helped them 92,000 YA Evidence of the earliest known ritual burial of the dead at Qafzeh Cave, Israel 60,000 YA Microliths in Africa—small stone tools, including blades—first used for cutting and scraping, the earliest known processing technology 80,000 YA acquire more food and travel farther. This meant that they thrived in many different places, from the frozen Arctic to the hot tropics. Then, within the last 20,000 years, all around the world, modern humans began to abandon their nomadic ways in favor of fixed settlements, turning their skills to farming the land, supporting bigger societies, and— ultimately—planting the seeds of civilization itself. 40,000 YA Oldest securely dated painting includes a handprint in an Indonesian cave 60,000 YA 65,000 YA Australia and New Guinea—then connected by land— are colonized by boat 44,000 YA Homo sapiens migrate from Asia into Europe, mixing with European Neanderthals and eventually replacing them 40,000 YA 30,000 YA Needles used for sewing in Europe and Russia 25,000 YA Siberian Homo sapiens settles on the continental shelf between Ice Age Russia and Alaska before dispersing through the Americas △ Early artists These depictions of Ice Age animals on the walls of the Lascaux Caves in southern France are about 17,000 years old. Similar paintings nearby show that prehistoric humans had developed a degree of creative expression as early as 30,000 years ago. 5,000 YA A new wave of colonists, the Austronesians, migrates from Asia across New Guinea and reaches islands of the Pacific Ocean 20,000 YA 28,000 YA Spectacular double child burial in eastern Europe shows complex hunter-gatherer cultures living on the steppes 0 15,000 YA First use of ladders in Lascaux Caves, France 13 14 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e Rabat Casablanca THE FIRST HUMANS Jebel Irhoud Tighenif Temara Dar-es-Soltan A as tl ns tai un o M 300,000 YA The earliest remains of Homo sapiens in the fossil record were unearthed here in Morocco The human story began in Africa 7 or 6 million years ago. Through the fossil record of this vast continent, we can draw a complex family tree of human relatives of which our species, Homo sapiens, is the last to survive. We have fossil evidence for the existence of about 20 different species of African “hominin”—members of the human lineage that diverged from that of chimpanzees 7–10 million years ago. Each has been assigned to a biological group or “genus,” but the relationships between the groups and species are still debated. Only certain hominins were the ancestors of modern humans; others, such as the Paranthropus species, may represent evolutionary dead ends. Human evolution was not an inevitable, linear progression from apes. Some of our ancestors developed adaptations—in different combinations—that would ultimately mark out modern humans. Perhaps most notably, a larger brain enabled complex thought and behavior, including the development of stone-tool technologies, while walking on two legs became the main form of locomotion. The earliest fossils assigned to our species—dated to around 300,000 years ago—were found in Morocco, but other early specimens have been found widely dispersed across Africa. This has led scientists to believe that the evolution of modern humans probably happened on a continental scale. ◁ Turkana Boy The skull of a young male Homo ergaster was found along with his well-preserved, nearly complete skeleton near Lake Turkana, Kenya. Because his brain was about 60 percent the size of a modern human’s, his skull narrows immediately behind the eye sockets. 1 THE FIRST HUMANLIKE APES 7–5.5 MYA The sparse record of the earliest hominins— Sahelanthropus and Orrorin—shows that although they had shorter faces and smaller teeth, they had brains no larger than those of chimpanzees. The sole Sahelanthropus skull was discovered in Chad, far removed from other hominin sites in eastern and southern Africa. Fossils of both Orrorin and Ardipithecus kadabba are thought to exhibit features linked to developing two-legged locomotion. “I think Africa was the cradle, the crucible that created us as Homo sapiens.” PA L E OA N T H RO P O LO G I S T D O N A L D J O H A N S O N , 2 0 0 6 Sahelanthropus Orrorin Sahelanthropus skull Ardipithecus A Sites of fossil finds A SIA 1.2 MYA Atapuerca Tautavel Isernia la Pineta Ceprano Petralona Dmanisi Nihewan Kocabas Ubeidiya 1.7 MYA AFRIC A MORE THAN 1.8 MYA Zhoukoudian 1.6–1.3 MYA Hexian Nanjing Lantian Yunxian Narmada Buia Daka Bodo Konso-Gardula Lake Turkana Koobi Fora Olorgesailie Olduvai Gorge 1.8 MYA Sangiran Trinil Ngandong Mojokerto N E A O C Likely route EUROPE C TI KEY Swanscombe Happisburgh Mauer Boxgrove Steinheim 0.95–0.5 MYA N LA Archaeological evidence from Asia and Europe suggests that by about 2 million years ago, hominins had begun to leave Africa for the first time—long before Homo sapiens began to disperse (see pp.16–17). Experts once assumed that the migration corresponded with the appearance of Homo ergaster, but older species might have been the pioneers—a 1.7-million-year-old fossil found in Dmanisi, Georgia, resembles the earlier Homo habilis. The earliest known hominin fossils from Southeast Asia are of Homo erectus—an Asian variant of Homo ergaster, found on the island of Java and dating to 1.8 million years ago. Stone tools from the Nihewan Basin, China, date to 1.6 million years ago. Two sites in Spain’s Sierra de Atapuerca show that hominins had reached western Europe by 1.2 million years ago. T EARLY HOMININ MIGRATION THE FIRST HUMANS Med 2 iterra nean HUMANLIKE APES DIVERSIFY Sea Haua Fteah Nile c.200,000 YA Excavations at this cave near the Libyan coast have produced evidence of continual occupation by modern humans for many thousands of years Taramsa Bahr el Ghazali Ardipithecus Australopithecus Kenyanthropus Paranthropus 5.8 MYA The history of hominin occupation of the Middle Awash site in Ethiopia’s Afar Depression stretches back to the time of Ardipithecus kadabba 3.6–3 MYA The discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali fossils in Chad extended the known range of Australopithecus species 3 C A I R F A Singa 4.2 MYA Numerous species of Paranthropus and early human ancestors were first discovered in the Omo-Turkana Basin Et hio p ia n OUR OWN GENUS APPEARS 2.58 MYA–300,000 YA Homo habilis, the first member of our genus in the fossil record, evolved and, for a time, lived alongside later Australopithecus and Paranthropus species. Stone tools from this period have been found, but it is difficult to assign them to a species. Homo ergaster was the first hominin to have humanlike body proportions. It likely gave rise to Homo heidelbergensis, from which modern humans evolved. Toros-Menalla Middle Awash H ig h l a n d s Omo Australopithecus Lake Turkana La ke V Homo habilis t i f Laetoli e r c.1.8–1.6 MYA One of our earliest ancestors, Homo habilis, lived here alongside Paranthropus boisei for thousands of years c.350,000 YA Found in 1973, the Ndutu cranium has features common to both Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens, and has been assigned to Homo heidelbergensis G L a ke Nya sa t ka a Homo heidelbergensis Olduvai Gorge ny i R Homo ergaster Tugen Hills 4 When the first Homo sapiens became established, all other known African hominins died out except one. Fossil remains recently dated to 335,000–236,000 years ago suggest that a species named Homo naledi was inhabiting southern Africa at about the time Homo sapiens first appeared. Whether the species interacted is unknown, but with Homo naledi’s disappearance, our species would have had Africa to itself. Homo naledi mb Elandsfontein Klasies River Mouth ezi Florisbad Homo sapiens HOMININ FOSSIL RECORD Za Makapansgat Handaxe, probably H. ergaster HOMO SAPIENS PREVAILS 300,000–50,000 YA Madagascar Rising Star Cave C radle of Human k in d Taung ria nga e Ta Kabwe 335,000–236,000 YA The Cradle of Humankind site contains the Rising Star Cave system, where fossils of Homo naledi were first discovered in 2013 o ict Ndutu Lak 300,000–125,000 YA The very robust Homo heidelbergensis cranium found in Kabwe, Zambia, in 1921 once held a brain approaching the size of modern humans’ Paranthropus Koobi Fora y Lomekwi V a l l e 3.3 MYA The oldest stone tools ever discovered, from the archaeological site of Lomekwi, predate the appearance of the Homo genus Die Kelders 5.3–2.58 MYA Fossils from this time indicate a diversity of hominin species. Fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus, found in Ethiopia, include the oldest near-complete hominin skeleton. Later, Kenyanthropus—known from a single skull—and early Paranthropus—with its enormous molars—lived alongside several species of the genus Australopithecus, one of which left the famous Laetoli footprints 3.7–3.0 MYA (right), showing that a striding gait had evolved. Border Cave 294,000–224,000 YA A partial cranium found at Florisbad, South Africa, appears to be that of a transitional individual with features common in both Homo heidelbergensis and Homo sapiens The discovery of human fossils and artifacts across Africa has helped identify different genera and species of early humans. This map shows key locations of fossil remains and artifacts, along with the era in which their owners once lived. The dates of individual finds and periods of time are given in terms of “millions of years ago” (MYA) or simply “years ago” (YA). TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 8 MYA 6 MYA 4 MYA 2 MYA 0 15 16 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e 3 4 EASTERN COASTAL ROUTE 80,000–40,000 YA 5 50,000–25,000 YA Despite its relative proximity to Africa, modern humans did not start to colonize Europe until around 50,000 years ago. Early sites suggest that they spread along coastlines and rivers, starting in the eastern Mediterranean. Although little fossil evidence exists, the rich archaeological material includes the first figurative carvings and musical instruments. The genetic trail of modern humans leaving Africa leads through the Middle East, then along the coast of south Asia. People living off rich coastal resources may have made swift progress. Fossil evidence proves that they reached Borneo by 40,000 years ago, while Australian sites have been dated to 65,000 years ago. Migration routes EUROPE COLONIZED Migration routes Archaeological site Neanderthals had been living in Europe for hundreds of thousands of years before modern humans arrived. Although the timing and locations are unknown, ancient genetics suggests thousands of interbreeding events. Some fossils attributed to modern humans show features associated with Neanderthals, leading some scientists to speculate that these individuals may be hybrids. Mamontovaya Kurya Byzovaia Archaeological site Fossil site Fossil site Kents Cavern Fossil site Hohle Fels Les Rois Ust Karakol 38,700–36,200 YA A male from Kostenki is one of the oldest modern humans found in Europe Kostenki Vogelherd Cioclovina Chatelperron Archaeological site 24,000 YA According to DNA analysis, Mal’ta Boy shares a close ancestry with the male found in Kostenki, Europe 42,000–37,000 YA DNA extracted from remains of Homo sapiens from Pestera cu Oase, Romania, is estimated to be 5–11 percent Neanderthal, meaning that it had a Neanderthal relation within 4–6 generations E O P R Mladec E U INTERACTION WITH NEANDERTHALS 50,000–28,000 YA Malaia Syia Mal’ta Denisova Cave Okladnikov Cave Kara-Bom Bacho Kiro Pestera cu Oase Lagar Velho Gorham’s Cave A A S I Teshik Tash Misliya Cave Temara Dar-es-Soltan Hauah Fteah Skhul Qafzeh Jebel Irhoud Al Wusta Taramsa 300,000 YA Jebel Irhoud is the site of the earliest Homo sapiens yet found—a kind of proto-Homo sapiens with a modern, flat face but a primitive rear skull EARLY ASIAN EXPANSIONS 194,000–88,000 YA Migration routes 1 Fossil site HOMO SAPIENS IN AFRICA 300,000–70,000 YA Before Homo sapiens first left Africa, they flourished as a species and began to exhibit what we might recognize as “modern” behavior. Excavations at the Blombos Caves, on the southern tip of Africa, have produced some of the earliest evidence of complex thought and innovation, including jewelry, engraved stones, refined bone tools, projectile weapons, and painting materials. Jwalapuram Singa A I C F R The earliest evidence of modern humans living outside Africa are a partial jaw and teeth from Misliya Cave in Israel, dated to 194,000–177,000 years ago. Fossils from Skhul and Qafzeh, also in Israel, dated to around 120,000 years ago possibly represent a subsequent wave of expansion. The discovery of an 88,000-year-old finger bone in Al Wusta, Saudi Arabia, has extended the range of early migrations to the Arabian Peninsula. Tam Pa Ling caves A 2 Jebel Faya Herto / Middle Awash 38,000–30,000 YA Balangoda Man in Sri Lanka represents the earliest reliably dated record of anatomically modern humans in south Asia Omo Kibish Laetoli MIGRATION OF EARLY HUMANS Archaeological site 35,000 YA Border Cave yielded the Lebombo Bone to archaeologists— this bears marks suggesting a counting tally, similar to those used in recent times by the San people of the Kalahari Land exposed due to lower sea level 20,000 YA TIMELINE Border Cave Florisbad Blombos Caves KEY The series of arrows on this map represents the probable migration routes of early modern humans based on current archaeological and genetic evidence. Also highlighted are some of the most significant archaeological sites that have yielded tools and cultural evidence, and locations where important fossils have been discovered. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 300 Fossil site Lenggong Valley Balangoda Klasies River Mouth 250 200 150 100 THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO 50 0 OUT OF AFRICA 6 MYSTERIOUS DENISOVANS 150,000–50,000 YA DNA analysis of a finger bone and two teeth from Denisova Cave in Siberia has identified a previously unknown and distinct population, the Denisovans. Although their remains have only been found at one site, their genes indicate that they were widespread. Contemporaries of the Neanderthals, they also interbred with this species, as well as with Homo sapiens. Yana 45,000 YA Tools, along with mammoth and rhinoceros bones, show humans living above the Arctic Circle during the Ice Age Fossil site Ust-mil OUT OF AFRICA The modern human, Homo sapiens, is a truly global species, inhabiting every continent. Our colonization of the planet started before 177,000 years ago, when groups began dispersing from their African homeland. By 40,000 years ago, our species lived in northern Europe and central and east Asia, and had crossed the sea to Australia. Ancient hominins had moved from Africa into Asia and Europe well over a million years before our species first appeared (see p.14). But the details of how Homo sapiens relates to these earlier species are still emerging gradually with every fossil and archaeological discovery from the period. Genetic and archaeological evidence now overwhelmingly favors the Recent African Origin model, also known as the “Out-ofAfrica” theory, which proposes that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and later spread across the Old World, replacing all other hominin species. Homo sapiens first left Africa some time after 200,000 years ago, and some groups appear to have reached east Asia by at least 80,000 Zhoukoudian Tianyuan Cave 120,000–80,000 YA Human remains at Tianyuan cave are the oldest in east Asia Yamashita-cho 40,000 YA Around 70 stone axes were found buried in dated volcanic sediment layers △ The emergence of art The Venus of Brassempouy (France), dating to about 25,000 years ago, features one of the earliest known representations of the human face. Matenkupkum, Balof, and Panakiwuk “I, too, am convinced that our ancestors came from Africa.” K E N YA N P A L E O A N T H R O P O L O G I S T R I C H A R D L E A K E Y, 2 0 0 5 THE STORY IN OUR GENES EVIDENCE IN HUMAN DNA Huon Peninsula Jerimalai SA H U L 7 CENTRAL TO EAST ASIA 120,000–45,000 YA Populations that spread to central and eastern Asia probably came from those that had originally colonized coastal southern Asia. The cold, bleak environments they encountered to the north would have demanded great adaptability. Those that reached the far northeast would give rise to the populations that went on to colonize the Americas. Migration routes Fossil site Archaeological site years ago and perhaps as early as 120,000 years ago. Either via the Horn of Africa or the Sinai Peninsula, the first migrants traveled east along Asia’s southern coastline and either north into China or eastward across Southeast Asia. Subsequent groups headed through central and eastern Asia and finally northwest into Europe. As they moved into new territories, Homo sapiens‘ progress may have been hindered, particularly in Europe, by their encounters with other hominins, including Neanderthals and Denisovans. Little is yet known of the Denisovans, but the Neanderthal was the first fossil hominin discovered and is now known from thousands of specimens. Evidence of interaction with both species lives on in our genes. By comparing the genetic makeup of living people from all over the world, scientists are able to analyze the evolutionary relationships between different populations. This has enabled them to confirm our African origins and describe how and when our species spread around the world. Genetic material (DNA) has also been extracted from the fossils of some extinct species. Analysis of the DNA of Neanderthals and Denisovans has revealed that they both interbred with Homo sapiens and contributed some of their genes to modern human populations. The Vedda people of Sri Lanka DNA analysis has been used to show that these are the earliest native inhabitants of Sri Lanka. 17 18 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e THE FIRST AUSTR ALIANS More than 60,000 years ago, hardy, resourceful people arrived in Australia after crossing the seas from Asia. They became Aboriginal Australians and went on to establish a unique way of life with a distinct culture. During the last ice age, Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania were joined in a single landmass (see p.17), which was colonized by a seafaring people who crossed the seas from Asia on bamboo vessels. These people were the first Australians. Their journey through the continent followed coastlines and river valleys. Archaeological evidence suggests that by 30,000 years ago, they had spread far and wide, from Tasmania in the south to the Swan River in the west and northward into New Guinea. Indigenous Australians Australia’s indigenous peoples were seminomadic; instead of developing agricultural societies, they moved with the seasons. They lived in small family groups △ Ancient art but were connected through extensive Discovered in western Australia social networks. Already adept at hunting in 1891, the ancient Bradshaw and gathering, they developed new rock paintings show human figures engaged in display or hunting. technologies such as boomerangs, fish traps, and stone axes shaped by grinding. Over time, the groups became culturally diverse. In the far north, people of the Torres Strait—between Australia and New Guinea—became distinct from the Australian Aborigines. Aboriginal life became centered on relationships between people and the natural world, or “Country,” which included animals, plants, and rocks. These links, which have lasted into modern life, are formalized in the “Dreaming”: oral histories of creation combined with moral codes, some of which are reflected in art. THE COLONIZATION OF AUSTRALIA The earliest known archaeological Madjedbebe Nawarla sites in Australia are 65,000 years Rock Shelter Gabarnmung old—a date that conforms with 65,000 YA 45,000 YA genetic evidence for the origins of indigenous Australians. Fossils of humans and their animal prey, AUSTRALIA as well as artifacts from the time, Upper indicate that populations were Swan River Willandra Lakes 40,000 YA centered around coastlines and 40,000 YA the Murray–Darling river basins. Devil’s Lair 48,000 – 43,000 YA KEY Archaeological site pre-30,000 YA Penrith 50,000 – 40,000 YA Tasmania 30,000 YA THE FIRST AUSTR ALIANS Part of the landscape The Jawoyn people of northern Australia have been producing spectacular rock art for more than 30,000 years. Their paintings often feature marsupials and are predominantly red and white. 19 Movement of people 5 Movement of people Archaeological site Most of South America’s earliest colonists stuck to the Pacific coast, where they spread in the Andean region before continuing down toward Patagonia. It is likely that many crossed the Andes, with some people living at altitudes of over 13,120 ft (4,000 m), to go eastward deep into the Amazon basin or across Patagonia. COLONIZING SOUTH AMERICA 14,000–10,000 YA Movement of people Within the last 5,000 years, the ancestors of today’s Inuit, Inupiat, and Yupik peoples entered America. Like the earlier colonists, they probably arrived from northeastern Asia but stayed in the north. The complex skills that allowed them to live and hunt in the Arctic are still practiced today. o Paisley Cave Arlington Springs Archaeological site At least one bloodline diverged from the rest of the North Americans and migrated southward. These people took their hunting technology with them as they reached out into the more tropical regions of Central America, then down toward the equator and South America. Movement of people La Sena and Lovewell Anzick 12,600 YA Clovis-type infant (Anzick-1) is first ancient Native American DNA sample providing a full genetic sequence Laurentide Ice Sheet O Ixtapan Gault C E A N 3 Movement of people PageLadson Topper 13,000 YA Evidence of stone spearheads and butchered mastodon 16,000 YA 650,000 artifacts, mainly blades and flakes, could indicate permanent quarrying site 14,600 YA Evidence of butchering of mastodons 15,000 YA Oldest Clovis artifacts, possibly used for working wood and bone S O U T H A M E R I C A Taima-Taima Meadowcroft Rockshelter 11,290 YA Clovis, for many years, thought to be the oldest anthropological deposit in North America NLAN D 16,000–14,000 YA One of the oldest sites with non-Clovis tools and a range of plants gathered for food, including seeds, fruit, and corn G E RE Archaeological site Multiple population dispersals pushed on through North America, but archaeological evidence is dominated by stone artifacts left by peoples of the so-called Clovis culture, around 13,000 YA. Named after an archaeological site in New Mexico, the Clovis people were mobile hunter-gatherers who used tools to kill and butcher large animals, such as mammoths. NORTH AMERICAN CULTURES 15,000–10,000 YA 20,000–19,000 YA Butchering marks on mammoth bones are possible evidence for one of earliest southward movements of humans from ice-locked north 13,000 YA Evidence of transition from hunter-gatherer to early farming settlements Clovis N O R T H A M E R I C A PENETRATING FARTHER SOUTH 14,000–12,000 YA 13,000 YA Human remains on offshore island indicate possible use of watercraft 14,000 YA Human coprolites (preserved feces) 13,800 YA Pre-Clovis stone tool embedded in bone 4 M Manis 14,000–13,600 YA Dates of wooden tools Mastodon match local First Nation’s (Heiltsuk Nation’s) oral history of its colonization k ORIGINS OF ARCTIC INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 5,000 YA 13,000 YA Tools similar to those of Ushki complex rdi l Sh ler ee a t n Bluefish Cave and Old Crow River c 14,000 YA Microblades y similar to those used in central Siberia Triquet Island Upward Sun River Co Ice Swan Point Archaeological site 24,000 YA Mammoth bone and flakes indicate possible eastern reach of Yana culture from Siberia Movement of people R o 13,000 YA Blades and flake tools, but without burins (chisel-like edges), at Ushki complex Ushki complex B E R I N G I A Nenana 26,000–13,000 YA Genetic evidence indicates that most early North Americans arose from one of two branches of a population originating in east Asia. These common ancestors of Ancient Beringians and today’s Native Americans’ ancestors were blocked by ice sheets before moving past Alaska. The first Americans went farther south and into Canada when receding ice sheets exposed coastal and interior routes. FOUNDER AMERICANS 11,500 YA Double child burial, one of which, Xach’itee’aanenh T’eede Gaay (Sunrise Girl Child), provided DNA evidence of Ancient Beringian people 2 ta i n s un 6 BEFORE 25,000 YA Probably before 40,000 YA, hunter-gatherers were already living in Asian Arctic regions. These hardy people, who hunted mammoth at the Yana RHS site in Siberia (27,000 YA), were used to harsh conditions and well-prepared to take advantage of the lower sea levels that exposed the Beringia landmass joining Asia and America before 24,000 YA. They were the ancestors of the first people who crossed to America. ASIAN ORIGINS SIBERIA 1 20 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e 20,000 15,000 Extent of ice sheet 15,000–12,500 YA 10,000 5,000 Land exposed by lower sea level at height of Ice Age C A P Monte Verde Only one of these went on to settle the Americas—the ancestors of Native Americans. The other population—known as the Ancient Beringians—may have been isolated on or outside Beringia until after the glacial melt, as evidence of their DNA is distinct from that of any past or present Native Americans. Genetics show that between 17,500 and 14,600 YA, the group that had entered America branched again into two new lineages, northern and southern. People who continued farther followed routes along the Pacific coast and far into the interior. Some became separated over vast distances but remained genetically similar, suggesting that they moved rapidly. Within a few thousand years, they had established themselves in Central America, and just centuries after that had entered Patagonia. ◁ Clovis spearheads Bifacially worked (chipped into shape on each side) flint points were characteristic products of Clovis technology across North America. 18,500–14,500 YA Oldest human habitation in South America, possibly a coastal culture; unusually good preservation including hearths, hide, and plants 13,100 YA Human habitation with living floor, hearth, and horses D A V I D J . M E LT Z E R , F I R S T P E O P L E S I N A N E W W O R L D : C O L O N I Z I N G I C E A G E A M E R I C A , 2 0 0 9 Lagoa Santa Extinct sabertooth cat The hunter-gatherer Clovis people were once viewed as the first Americans, but archaeological sites predating the Clovis period show this is not the case. However, the Clovis became a widespread influence. They used bifacial stone points and blades to hunt many of North America’s large mammals, such as bison, mammoths, and sabertooth cats. In addition to the changing climate and habitats of these species, hunters were possibly one of the main factors that led to their extinction. STONE AGE HUNTERS 10,500 YA Stone scrapers, choppers, and bolas, possibly used to hunt birds 11,000 YA Spearhead, human fossil, and remains of hunted animals 11,500 YA Oldest human skeleton, “Luzia,” found in Brazil THE CLOVIS Piedra Museo Fell’s Cave Quebrada Santa Julia “They made prehistory, those latter-day Asians who, by jumping continents, became the first Americans. Theirs was a colonization the likes and scale of which … would never be repeated.” Some 24,000 years ago, the world was locked in an ice age, when an Arctic ice sheet covered much of the northern world. With so much water frozen in glaciers, ocean levels were low enough to expose a connection of land, known as Beringia, between Asia and North America. This meant that people could walk across from one continent to the other, until their way became blocked as ice sheets closed in on them. There, America’s founding peoples were isolated for thousands of years, until warmer times melted the ice and opened up corridors to the south, possibly as early as 20,000 YA. DNA evidence from archaeological sites and the DNA of Native Americans alive today shows that two distinct populations split from the founding group that had entered the new lands across Beringia. By the time Columbus set foot in the Americas in 1492, the continents had been peopled for thousands of years. The real discoverers of these new worlds had come from Siberia. They conquered ice and snow and trekked enormous distances to colonize a landmass of prairieland, desert, rainforest, and mountains. PEOPLING THE AMERICAS 30,000 YA 1 2 3 4 5 6 25,000 Extent of ice sheet 24,000 YA IC A n d e s TIMELINE KEY Genetic studies and archaeological evidence from sites in Siberia, North America, and South America show that humans moved over a land bridge joining America to Asia at least 30,000–20,000 years ago (YA). As the land emerged from an ice age, these people then spread through the entire continent, possibly reaching along the coasts of southern South America by 18,000 YA. COLONIZING A NEW WORLD IF PEOPLING THE AMERICAS 21 22 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e THE FIRST FARMERS Working the land to grow food was an entirely new way of life for prehistoric humans. It turned them from nomads into farmers—and created settlements with permanent buildings, larger societies, and the potential to develop more elaborate technology and culture. △ Innovative tools Wooden tools called adzes had blades made from stone that were sufficiently strong to fell trees, open up land for pasture, or dig hard ground. The earliest humans mostly lived in small nomadic bands and went wherever food was plentiful. They tracked the migrations of large animals as they hunted for meat, just as they followed the seasonal bounties of fruit and seeds. They built—and rebuilt—simple camps, carrying a few lightweight belongings with them. This hunter-gatherer existence supported humans through the last ice age, but about 12,000 years ago, a rise in Earth’s temperature opened up a world of alternative possibilities. One species of human—Homo sapiens— successfully emerged into this warmer world. By this time, these modern humans had spread far beyond their African ancestral home into Asia, Australasia, and America. And independently, all over the world, they had begun creating permanent farming settlements. Settling down Permanent camps with stronger houses made sense in places where the land was especially fertile—such as on floodplains of rivers. Settlers could support more hungry mouths by hunting, fishing, and gathering plant food around a local foraging ground that was rich in resources. This was just a small step from farming, as ▷ Early farming villages This settlement at Mehrgarh in modern Pakistan dates from 7000 bce. It had mud-brick houses and granaries to store surplus cultivated cereal grain. 11,000–9000 bce Wheat and barley are grown in southwest Asia to produce nonshattering seed heads that are easier to harvest—the first domesticated cereal grains SETTLED LIVING As modern humans dispersed around the world, they relied on local plants and animals for sustenance. Nomadic societies gave way to settled communities as people planted the first crops or corralled the first livestock. Domestication of wild species began from about 12,000 years ago. The first farmers used the most edible species that were easiest to harvest, growing their food in abundance, providing enough to support larger populations, and ultimately outcompeting hunter-gatherers. it was more convenient to nurture or transplant food plants closer to home or plant their seeds and tubers (some recent evidence suggests people had started to do this as early as 23,000 years ago)—while the most amenable wild animals were confined to pens. These first farms produced more food to feed more people, so settlements could grow bigger and even produce a surplus to help with leaner times. Valuable food stores—defended from competing camps— became another reason to stay in one place. Domestication By about 10,000 bce, agriculture had emerged in Eurasia, New Guinea, and America, with farmers relying on local plants and animals as favored sources of food. They learned that some species were more useful than others, and so these became staple parts of their diets. In the fertile floodplains of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), local wild wheat and barley became the cereal grains of choice, while goats and sheep provided meat. East Asia’s main cereal grain was rice, and in Central America, farmers cultivated corn. In all cases, the first farmers selected the most manageable and highyielding plants and animals. Over time and generations, their choices would change the traits of wild species, as crops and livestock passed on their characteristics to form the domesticated varieties we use today. With 10,000 bce Lentils, peas, and chickpeas in the Middle East provide an additional source of protein—improving the dietary balance along the Fertile Crescent CROPS ANIMALS 11,000 bce 10,000 bce In southwest Asia, local animals—including sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle—are domesticated and will become globally important livestock 10,000 bce 9000 bce 8000 bce 10,000–5000 bce Corn domesticated in Central America becomes the staple cereal grain in the Americas, while squash plants are selectively bred to reduce bitterness of their taste TH E F I R ST FAR M ER S ◁ Working the land A wooden model, from 2000 bce, of a man plowing the land with oxen, depicts the earliest kind of scratch plow, which cut a furrow through hard ground ready for sowing seeds. domestication, settlements became increasingly reliant on the limited kinds of plants and animals that provided the bulk of their food. As a result, although food was plentiful, it sometimes lacked dietary balance. More time was needed to work the land, and livestock could be lost during droughts. People’s health was often poor, as crowded settlements encouraged the spread of infectious disease among humans, as well as their livestock. Ultimately, agriculture’s success, or otherwise, was a trade-off between these risks and benefits. In some parts of the world—such as the Australian interior—conditions “Farming was the precondition for the development of … civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, China, the Americas, and Africa.” G R A E M E B A R K E R , B R I T I S H A R C H A E O L O G I S T, F R O M A G R I C U L T U R A L R E V O L U T I O N I N P R E H I S T O R Y, 2 0 0 6 5000 bce Potato plants are grown in Peru and northern Argentina— the ancestors of potatoes used as a staple today 7000 bce Rice plants grown in the fertile Yangtze River valley in China are bred to provide larger, more nutritious grains 6000 bce 7000 bce Cattle domesticated in northern Africa, predating the emergence of most crops on the African continent 5000 bce 5500 bce Horses are domesticated in central Asia favored more traditional nomadic lifestyles, and here humans largely remained hunter-gatherers. As farmers gained a better understanding of the needs of their crops and livestock, they developed ways of overcoming risks and increasing productivity. They learned how to use animal dung as fertilizer or to irrigate the land by diverting rivers—curtailing effects of seasonal drought. In Egypt, for example, the waters of the Nile were used for large-scale irrigation of farmland, helping to lengthen growing seasons. Over time, food productivity became material wealth: more food not only fed more people but facilitated trade, too. At the same time, larger settlements could support people with different skills, such as craftsmen and merchants. It meant that the agricultural revolution would have farreaching consequences for the history of humankind— including the emergence of industrial towns and cities. 4000 bce Pearl millet is grown in the Sahel regions and—along with sorghum—becomes one of the staple cereal grains of Africa 4000 bce 5000 bce Llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs are domesticated in South America; llamas are used for meat, wool, and as beasts of burden 3000 bce Dromedary camels are domesticated in Africa and Arabia—and used for transportation or for their meat and milk △ Feral ancestor The Armenian mouflon from southwestern Asia is the possible ancestor of the domesticated sheep, which was one of the earliest animal species to be tamed, at around 10,000 bce. 2000 bce Turkeys are domesticated in Mexico and used for meat and their feathers, and later have ceremonial significance 3000 bce 4000 bce Chickens are used as food and for cock-fighting in southern Asia, although genetic evidence suggests a much earlier origin as a domesticated bird, possibly before 10000 bce 2000 bce 23 24 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e 5 DIFFERENT KINDS OF CROPS AND LIVESTOCK: AMERICA 10,000–2000 bce Across the Old World, similar kinds of crops and livestock were being used in separate centers of agriculture. But the early colonizers of the Americas found entirely new plants, such as squashes and corn. The variety of these plants increased as people from different regions exchanged their produce. The only large animals suitable for domestication in the Americas, llamas and alpacas, were both found in the Andes. ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE When hunter-gatherers abandoned their nomadic life and became the first farmers, they were doing more than feeding their families. They were kick-starting an agricultural revolution that would have enormous implications for the future of humanity. Archaeological site Squash and avocado Corn and millet Potato Peanut Turkey Squash and sunflower Llama and alpaca 2000 bce Corn cultivation spreads from Mesoamerica to North America Evidence for agriculture’s origins comes from archaeology and from DNA of crops or livestock and their wild counterparts. No one knows exactly why people started to work the land. Perhaps they transplanted wild crops closer to home for convenience or saw the potential of germinating seeds. Whatever happened, as climates warmed in the wake of the Ice Age and populations swelled, people around the world—entirely independently—became tied to farming. It brought a stable source of nourishment and sometimes, when yields were good, a surplus to sustain people through leaner times. Tending crops or corralling livestock demanded that communities stayed in one place long enough to reap the harvest. Other reasons for staying in one location would have been that the new farming tools were too heavy to carry from place to place and any food surplus had to be stored. While agrarian settlements grew to become the seeds of civilization, their communities spread, taking their skills, plants, and livestock with them. 9000 bce Rapid domestication of corn Mesoamerica 2000 bce Earliest domestication of turkeys by Mayans And △ Hungarian statuette Agriculture’s significance to community life was frequently expressed in art, such as this 5th-millennium sickleclasping idol from central Europe. S O U T H A M E R I C A ADVENT OF AGRICULTURE WILD SPECIES TO CROPS AND LIVESTOCK Produce of artificial selection Bigger cobs of domesticated corn (left) are descended from wild corn (right). es 6000 bce Earliest domestication of llamas by Incas J A R E D D I A M O N D , F R O M G U N S , G E R M S , A N D S T E E L , 19 9 7 The crops and livestock that humankind uses today descended from wild species that had rather different characteristics. Farmers chose to breed from individuals that served them best, such as by selecting ones that provided better yields or were more easily managed. This so-called artificial selection, applied over many generations and sometimes across centuries, gave rise to domesticated forms of plants and animals. 5000 bce Evidence of squash domestication Mississippi Valley “… Almost all of us are farmers or else are fed by farmers.” DOMESTICATION REVOLUTION NORTH AMERICA Teosinte (original wild plant) Agriculture arose independently in different parts of the world before diffusing into adjacent regions. Each area developed its own specific crops, dependent on the region’s climate, and some produce went on to become globally important as communities expanded across the world. KEY SIZE KEY Main independent centers of domestication Cereal grains Livestock Legumes Secondary centers Fruits and vegetables Tubers and roots Globally important produce Mainly regional produce TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 Modern corn cob 12,000 bce 10,000 8000 6000 4000 2000 O R I G I N S O F A G R I C U LT U R E 1 DOMESTICATION OF CROPS IN ASIA: CHINA 11,000–3000 bce Rice became the staple cereal grain crop in river valleys in China. Farmers chose the best glutinous rice grains to grow more plants, so rice grains got bigger. This human-driven change had already transformed wild wheat in Mesopotamia, where harvesting by sickles had, by chance, favored nonshattering seed heads. But selection of rice grains in Asia probably happened through more conscious effort. R O P E U E 10,200 bce Earliest evidence 7000 bce Arrival of agriculture in Europe, with food-producing economy adopted in Greece 11,000 bce Earliest evidence of plant domestication in the form of emmer and einkorn wheats 5500 bce Earliest evidence of horse domestication, including use of harnesses Cresc en Millet and rice Melon Rice Pig, horse, chicken, duck Soybean Cattle 10,000 bce Archaeological evidence of millet, the earliest known dry farming crop in Asia Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys Ga Fertile A S I A 10,000 bce Earliest evidence of sheep and goat domestication Mung bean t 5000 bce Earliest known domestication of cattle in Africa of pig domestication Archaeological site ng V e all s Riv ey e r 3100 bce First major irrigation project under Egypt’s First Dynasty diverts floodwater of the Nile West African Sahel Sahel and Upper Nile Valley 5000 bce Likely origin of domesticated oil palm 4500 bce Evidence of pearl millet domestication; the earliest known cultivated crop in Africa 10,500 bce Modern cattle domesticated from a small founding herd containing possibly as few as 80 animals A F R I C A 7000 bce Possible early cultivation of rice in southern Asia 3500–3000 bce Archaeological evidence of sorghum domestication AUSTR LIVESTOCK BEFORE CROPS: AFRICA 9000–2000 bce In some parts of the world, animals were domesticated before crops. In Africa, cattle were being used as early as 9000 bce, but local cereal grains, such as millet and sorghum, were not domesticated until thousands of years after that. Agriculture began in the Sahara; due to increased rainfall after the Ice Age, the area was then covered by grasslands, lakes, and marshes. As the region dried, agriculture spread southward. Archaeological site Sorghum and millet Oil palm and date palm New Guinea Highlands Before 10,000 bce Wild junglefowl, ancestor of modern-day chickens, are domesticated 1 MYA Evidence of first controlled use of fire by humans, at Wonderwerk Cave; possibly earliest barbecue 4 8000 bce Origin of all domesticated Asian rice Cattle, donkey, and camel 3 EARLIEST EVIDENCE OF AGRICULTURE: MESOPOTAMIA 12,000–4000 bce It is no coincidence that some of the earliest crops were grown on the nutrient-rich floodplain between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers of modern-day Iraq. Here in ancient Mesopotamia (meaning “between rivers”), wheat was domesticated around 11,000 bce. This region was part of a so-called “Fertile Crescent” that stretched westward as far as the Levant and became key to the global agricultural revolution. Archaeological site Olive Wheat and barley Sheep, goat, pig, and cattle Lentil, pea, and chickpea 2 ALI 7000 bce Archaeological evidence of banana and taro cultivation A AGRICULTURE IN THE WET TROPICS: NEW GUINEA 10,000–4000 bce Covered with rainforest, the tropical island of New Guinea offered a completely different mix of food plants. Instead of cereal grains, people grew fruit and root crops—notably banana and taro, the latter of which has both edible roots and leaves and is still a local food staple. But farming here was only part of the local economy; the region remains today the only primary center of agriculture that has not contributed domesticated species to the rest of the world. Archaeological site Banana Taro and yam 25 P R E H I S T O R Y 7 M YA – 3 0 0 0 b c e EMERGENCE OF SETTLEMENTS k Se TIMELINE a 1 2 3 4 15,000 bce 10,000 bce 7400–5200 bce Early proto-urban settlement develops new burial traditions beneath houses Anatolia Çatal Höyük Hacilar Canhasan 6000 bce After a period of abandonment, village is reoccupied by a culture with advanced pottery 6000 bce Small fortified town with a surrounding wall 9000 bce A town with two-story, round, stone houses Khirokitia Byblos From 8000 bce One of the oldest continuously inhabited towns in the world From 10,000 bce Camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherers grows into one of the world’s oldest cities HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF CLAY Jericho Beidha Ain Ghazal Nile Delta 10,300–9550 bce Settlement consisting of farms supporting thousands of people produces lime-plaster statues representing the human form Sina EGYP T Nile Halaf vase Mesopotamian pottery was decorated with geometric designs as early as 6000 bce. CYPRUS 7200 –6500 bce People cultivate cereal grains and herd goats while hunting animals and gathering nuts POTTERY IN THE STONE AGE Ugarit t rr an a i n van Me e dit e an Se J . M . R O B E R T S , F R O M H I S T O RY O F T H E W O R L D , 19 9 0 Fired clay had been used to make figurines and pots before 20,000 YA. It later became important in constructing dwellings. Wet clay was used to reinforce brushwood walls. Solid bricks gave protection from the elements and enemies, while creative clay technology was used to fashion more decorative pots. M s r u T a u a n t u o J o rdan “… it made sense for men to band together … for … management of the environment.” 1 ce 5000 bce 4900 bce Sophisticated use of copper, including mace-heads and jewelry Just as agriculture turned humans into a more sedentary species, so the settlements they made drove the attributes of modern human society: material accumulation, industry, and trade. This happened in places around the world, but nowhere is the evidence for it clearer than in southwest Asia. Here, the first farmers produced enough food on fertile soils to support denser populations. Although life was labor-intensive, and there was a greater risk of disease from overcrowding and malnutrition, there were benefits of living together in one place over a long period. People could concentrate on producing a surplus and perfect skills to make their lives easier. Clay was baked into bricks for making stronger houses or fashioned into large storage vessels. As towns grew, they were sometimes fortified with surrounding walls. Shells from the Mediterranean showed wide trade links developing, while copper gradually supplanted flint for better tools. As society itself divided into craftspeople, merchants, and their leaders, these first local industries brought material wealth that formed the basis of the first exchange economies. ac As nomadic hunter-gatherers began farming, for the first time in history human populations became anchored to fixed points on a map of civilization. Settlements grew in size and complexity; the first villages became the first towns. Bl VILLAGES TO TOWNS The chronology of settlement in southwest Asia followed an arc from the earliest camps in the west to the foundations of would-be cities in the east. Within 8,000 years—right across the region— agrarian villages were becoming industrial towns. Le 26 i s V I LL AG ES TO TOW N S 1 2 TRANSITION FROM NOMADS TO SETTLEMENTS 12,500–9000 bce The Natufian people, descended from nomads of the Levant and Sinai, made the earliest settlements in southwest Asia, from about 12,500 bce. At first, these were probably nothing more than seasonal hunting camps, although evidence for these is scant because nomads had few material possessions. Their descendants stockpiled food that demanded permanent storage. 3 FIRST AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS 11,000–6000 bce SPREAD OF MATERIAL CULTURE 7000–4000 bce Farmers emerged from early settlers who exploited wild cereal grains, such as rye, which was cultivated as early as 11,050 bce. At first, settlers rallied together to protect wild food plants from grazing animals, but, over time, plants were moved or seeds sown closer to home. Houses became more permanent, as mud brick replaced perishable brushwood as building material. More food supported bigger settlements as villages proliferated over a wider region, from Anatolia in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east. Çatal Höyük, a rich archaeological site, might have supported up to 10,000 people. Although it lacked social hierarchy, it had a thriving industry in pottery and obsidian tools, and may have traded for seashells and flints from Syria. Spread of settlements Spread of settlements Spread of settlements Archaeological site Archaeological site Archaeological site Caspian Sea From 9500 bce Settlement is reoccupied after a period of abandonment and thrives as a village that domesticates grains and sheep Lak a eV n 5000–1500 bce Town includes one of the earliest known temples featuring pilasters and recesses Lak 9130–7370 bce Oldest known temple, built by people who probably guarded plant resources but had not started farming 5500–4000 bce Becomes western outpost of Ubaid culture ia Tell Brak 6500–2600 bce Becomes gateway to Tigris Valley and develops into one of the first cities Tell Zeidan Mureybat From 11,500 bce Founded by people of Natufian culture SYRIA 6000 bce Appears as specialized artisan village, producing fine pottery Spread of settlements Archaeological site 6100–5400 bce Town that gives its name to the Halaf culture, known for pottery with geometric or animal designs 6000 bce Trade hub, which also improves its own agriculture through irrigation Jarmo From 10,200 bce Small village of Natufian culture hunter-gatherers M e Baghouz 6000 bce Town occupied by Samarra culture, known for finely made pottery Tepe Guran Ali Kosh o ta Ti gr ate 5000 bce Settlement uses stone and flint tools and irrigation from the Tigris I r a n i a n is ia Tepe Sabz s a Uruk Eridu Tell el ’Ubaid P l a t e a u 6000 bce Village with agriculture Z Nippur 5000 bce An important religious center r 7500 bce Settlement with domestication of animals, such as goats 6000 bce First known use of canal irrigation m Euphr ia n D e s er t Sy r A 6400–6200 bce Small village based on dry farming, herding, and hunting Choga Mami Tell es Sawwan p 6000–1500 bce Settlement produces monochromatic pottery Tepe Giyan Tell Arpachiyah Tell Hassuna so 6000–3000 bce The Ubaid people were the first to colonize southeastern Mesopotamia as the Stone Age gave way to the Copper Age. They used copper to make tools, were led by hereditary chieftains, and may even have had a primitive democracy. Ubaid settlements merged to form bigger communities—notably Uruk, which would become one of the first true cities and a hub of major trade networks. Tepe Gawra Tell Halaf Tell Abu Hureyra GROWTH OF URBAN LIFE 7090–4950 bce Settlement engages in organized trade of obsidian and shells with distant places rm eU Gobekli Tepe 4 a g r o s M o u n t a in s b 2900 bce City becomes the largest in the world at the time ia n ia From 5400 bce Develops into one of the biggest settlements of the Ubaid culture; possibly the world’s first city s l a r ◁ Ain Ghazal statue Bigger settlements nurtured more complex belief systems. Limeplaster human figures, buried beneath floors, are possible evidence of early ancestor worship. u e i n s P n P e 5200–3500 bce Settlement that gives its name to the Ubaid culture develops use of copper-based technology n G u l f 27 THE ANCIENT WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY STRETCHES FROM WHEN THE FIRST CITIES DEVELOPED AROUND 3000 BCE TO THE FALL OF POWERS SUCH AS THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND HAN CHINA IN THE FIRST CENTURIES CE. 30 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3 0 0 0 b c e – 50 0 c e THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS Fertile soil, warm climate, and an ample supply of water, along with agriculture and a stoneworking technology, allowed the first urban civilizations to develop. The earliest is thought to have flourished in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) around 3500 bce. Of all the factors that helped civilizations grow, water was perhaps the most important. The earliest known civilization was born in Sumer, in southern Mesopotamia, in the fertile region between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The Sumerians were drawn to the area they settled in because of the abundance of fresh water the rivers provided. A thriving trading center of the Sumerian civilization, Uruk is generally considered to be the world’s first city. It boasted 6 miles of defensive walls and a population that numbered between 40,000 and 80,000 at the height of its glory in 2800 bce. Other Sumerian city-states that contributed significantly to the civilization included Eridu, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, and Kish. Probably the most important Sumerian invention was the wheel, followed by the development of cuneiform writing. △ Ram in the thicket A fine example of Sumerian craftsmanship, this elaborately crafted statuette of a wild goat searching for food comes from the city-state of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. The first pyramids Just as the Sumerians depended on the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, the Egyptian civilization could not have come into existence without the Nile. The water from the Nile flooded the plains for 6 months annually, leaving behind a nutrient-rich layer of thick, black silt. This meant that the early Egyptians could cultivate crops, including grains, and fruit and vegetables. “This is the wall of Uruk, which no city on Earth can equal.” E P I C O F G I L G A M E S H , C . 2 0 0 0 bce 3500 bce The wheel is invented ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS City-based civilization is thought to have originated in Mesopotamia (the area between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris), followed by Egypt’s Nile Valley. Civilizations grew independently in the fertile basins of the Yellow River in China and the Indus Valley in today’s Pakistan and India. In each case, a great river created the conditions for intensive, efficient agriculture. Early cities also grew in Peru, for reasons not yet fully understood. In Europe, the Minoans built highly developed urban settlements centered on grand palaces. △ Architectural wonder Giza’s pyramids were the tombs of three Old Kingdom pharaohs. From left to right, the three large pyramids seen here are the tombs of Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu. Around 3400 bce, two Egyptian kingdoms flourished— Upper Egypt in the Nile Valley and Lower Egypt to the north. Some 300 years later, King Narmer unified the two kingdoms, establishing Memphis as the capital of united Egypt. It was near Memphis, at Saqqara, that the Egyptians built their first pyramid around 2611 bce. The step pyramid was designed by Imhotep—one of King Djoser’s most trusted advisors—as a tomb to house the corpse of his royal master. More than 130 pyramids followed. The most significant of these was the Great Pyramid, constructed at Giza for Khufu, who reigned from 2589 to 2566 bce. Two more pyramids were erected on the same site for the pharaohs Khafre and Menkaure, Khufu’s successors. Although completely unrelated, pyramid-shaped 3100 bce The earliest form of cuneiform script is used c.3000 bce First signs of urbanization appear MESOPOTAMIA EGYPT INDUS VALLEY CHINA MINOANS 3500 bce 3250 bce 3500–3000 bce City-states such as Uruk and Ur develop 3000 bce 3100 bce King Narmer unites Upper and Lower Egypt; the hieroglyphic script develops 2750 bce c.2600 bce The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa are founded T H E F I R S T C I V I L I Z AT I O N S ▷ Ritual vessel This Chinese bronze food bowl, or gui, was probably made between 1300 and 1050 bce. It was used in Shang religious rituals. structures were also constructed in what is now Peru by the Norte Chico civilization, builders of the first cities in Americas, sometime before 3000 bce. Civilizations of the east Rivers played an equally important part in the development of civilizations in the Indus Valley (in the northwestern part of south Asia) and northern China. The Indus Valley people are known today as Harappans after Harappa—one of their greatest cities, along with Mohenjo Daro. The Harappans prospered from 3300 to 1900 bce. Until recently, the Harappans were thought to have been overrun by Aryan invaders from the north, but a more modern theory suggests that tectonic shifts that affected the rivers on which they relied were the cause of the Indus Valley collapse. Yet another theory suggests that the drying up of local rivers led to the culture’s decline. A Chinese civilization flourished along the Huang He, or Yellow River, in the north. As with the Egyptian and Harappan civilizations, here, too, seasonal floods enriched the soil. This encouraged the development of farming, while the river itself provided a useful trade route. By 2000 bce, bronze-working, silkweaving, and pottery were being practiced. Mediterranean island of Crete. Its people are known as the Minoans, so named by the British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans to honor Minos, a legendary ruler who may or may not have existed. The Minoans were a great maritime trading power, exporting timber, pottery, and textiles. Trade brought wealth, and they built many palaces—Knossos being the most impressive. The Minoan civilization declined in the late 15th century bce. Some historians attribute this to a volcanic explosion on the island of Thera (modern-day Santorini), while others argue that it was the result of an invasion by the Mycenaeans from mainland Greece. ▽ Artistic expression This colorful fresco, depicting a Minoan funeral ritual honoring a dead nobleman, decorates a sarcophagus dating from the 14th century bce. The mysterious Minoans Around the same time that the Chinese civilization was developing, another influential civilization was emerging on the c.2500 bce Earliest use of the Indus script is seen 2500 bce 2000 bce Bronze casting is practiced by the Erlitou culture on the Yellow River 2250 bce 2350 bce King Sargon of Akkad unites Sumerian cities to create the world’s first empire 2000 bce 2000–1450 bce The Minoan civilization spreads from Crete through the Aegean 1900 bce Construction of the temple of Karnak, at Thebes in Egypt, begins 1700 bce The Hyksos take control of the Nile delta, ending Egypt’s Middle Kingdom 1750 bce 1800 bce Climate change begins to affect the Indus Valley civilization c.1646 bce A massive volcanic explosion occurs at Thera 1500 bce The Aryans infiltrate the Indus Valley from the north 1500 bce 1600 bce The Battle of Mingtiao takes place, and the Shang Dynasty is established 1200 bce Chinese writing is used for the first time 1250 bce 31 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3 0 0 0 b c e – 50 0 c e 1 PREDYNASTIC EGYPT 2 4000 bce–3050 bce From 4000 bce, Egyptian cities such as Heliopolis, Memphis, and Abydos grew into key trading centers, importing metals and building stones from Nubia. They also traded with Mesopotamian cities, acquiring valuable materials such as lapis lazuli, which has its origin in the Indus Valley. By 3500 bce, Nekhen (later named Hierakonpolis) was already a large city with Egypt’s oldest known temples, housing royal tombs. Black Sea TRADE IN MESOPOTAMIA C a u c as us Major temples Ki I k rma A n a t o l i a GREECE Kültepe Lake Van Lake Urmia Tarsus te NT IA s Godin Nuzi Tepe Ashur Kermanshah Khafajah Tepe Hissar Hamadan Tepe Giyan Tell as-Suleimeh (Awal) Kalleh Nisar Tell Ajrab Sippar Kish Nippur Shuruppak Adab Umma Girsu Uruk Lagash Shahdad Susa a Ur Failaka r g Eridu S i n a i o Anshan s M P e EGYPT c.2040 bce Ziggurat of Ur is built by King Ur-Nammu (r. 2047–2030 bce) S a h a ra NUBIA TRADE AND THE FIRST CITIES The first cities emerged from 4000 bce along river valleys where high agricultural productivity was possible. Archaeological findings reveal the extent to which these cities traded with one another. G ou nt Tepe Yahya a i n s ul f Ajman Umm an Nar A ra b i a n Pe n i n s u l a Sea A F R I C A Dilmun n Tall-i Qaleh c.2000 bce Egyptian cities trade with Nubia, importing luxury goods such as gold, copper, ebony, and incense KEY Egypt Trading city Mesopotamia Trade route Indus Valley Archaeological site of traded goods Trading area TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 4000 bce 3000 2000 Hili Hafit Red Elephantine ia Tarut le Abydos Naqada El Kab Hierakonpolis Edfu s r c.2700 bce Uruk’s population reaches about 50,000 Ni c.3100 bce Hierakonpolis is the most likely capital after Lower and Upper Egypt are unified under King Narmer I r a n i a n P l a t e a u Sialk Z c.3000 bce Eshnunna holds a strategic position, controlling trade between Mesopotamia and the northeastern region Shah Tepe Marlik Eshnunna te VA ra Byblos S e a TA M Mari ph S y r i a n D e s e r t PO Araks r is Ebla Cyprus Heliopolis Memphis Saqqara SO Hasanlu Nineveh Tell Brak Eu e d i t e r r a n e a n ME T ig M Habuba Kabira c.3000 bce Trade routes are established across the Iranian Plateau linking Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley S e a i a n s p C a zi l Cre 4000–2500 bce By 4000 bce, many city-states had emerged in Mesopotamia. Cities such as Kish, Uruk, and Ur traded local goods to the Mediterranean and also formed trade links with the Indus region—a source of luxury goods such as carnelian beads and lapis lazuli. Religion played a key societal role. Temples redistributed surplus food and craft products—offered in the name of gods—as rations, or traded them for raw materials. Old royal tombs LE 32 1000 △ King Sargon Unearthed from the ancient ruins of Nineveh, this bronze head sculpture is thought to be of King Sargon of Akkad. THE FIRST CITIES 3 AKKADIAN EMPIRE 2300–2200 bce As the Mesopotamian cities continued to flourish, powerful leaders sought control over the region. The first was Sargon (c. 2296–2240 bce). As a young man, Sargon served the king of Kish, but later rebelled and overthrew the Sumerian ruler. He renamed the city-state Akkad and built it into a military power before conquering the cities of southern Mesopotamia and lands to the northwest as far as Byblos. Sumer Am uD a r ya u nd Hi Akkadian Empire nge h Ra Kus Shortughai Hi ma la ya s The first known cities developed along fertile river plains in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), Egypt, and the Indus Valley. They became thriving trading centers with an organized social structure, and flourished in the fields of art, craft, and architecture. In du s V a ll e y c.2000 bce With its lapis lazuli mines, Shortughai becomes a key trading colony of the Indus civilization Mundigak Harappa Kalibangan Ganweriwala Mohenjo-Daro s Shahr-i Sokhta Indu c.2600 bce Construction of the city of MohenjoDaro reflects sophisticated civil engineering and Bampur urban planning Da S A A I THE FIRST CITIES A ra wa l li H i l ls T h ar D e ser t c.3000 bce Lothal bead-makers develop advanced methods to work with carnelian Chanhu-Daro By 3000 bce, agricultural advances led to food surpluses in some parts of the world, namely the river valleys of the Nile in Egypt, the Indus, and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, allowing the communities living in these regions to branch out into a range of craftwork—from metalworking to masonry. This gave rise to the first markets, which channeled wealth into these sites, and in doing “The Mesopotamians viewed their city-states as earthly copies of a divine model and order.” J . S P I E LV O G E L , F R O M W E S T E R N C I V I L I Z AT I O N V O L . 1 , 2 0 1 4 Dholavira Lothal sht Rojadi 4 CITIES OF THE INDUS INDIA R ann of K u tc h 2600–1500 bce A ra b i a n S e a Ruins of cities such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro show planned street layouts and sophisticated water supply and drainage systems. These cities produced fine metalwork and developed new techniques in handicraft. From around 2500 bce, they traded widely, dispatching their goods with seals carved with inscriptions. These branding objects have been found throughout Mesopotamia, revealing how widely the Indus people traded. Indus inscriptions 5 CARNELIAN TRADE Chlorite vessels 2350–1800 bce A precious stone known as carnelian was valued second to lapis lazuli both in Mesopotamian and in Harappan society. Carnelian was sourced in and around the Indus Valley and was mostly crafted into beads and amulets. From around 2350 bce, Indus Valley merchants who traded in carnelian jewelry established links with Mesopotamian cities. Archaeological site of carnelian beads so formed the nucleus of the world’s first cities. These urban centers mostly grew on the riverbanks, in close proximity to fertile farmland and sources of clay for brick-making. The rivers served as vital routes for transporting raw material such as timber, precious stones, and metals into the cities. Trade goods also moved over land, in particular across the Levant and the Iranian Plateau, linking the cities of all three regions. Most notably, carnelian beads and seals (branding marks on documents accompanying goods) from the Indus Valley have been found widely in Mesopotamia. Many Mesopotamian cities grew into powerful city-states, some of which eventually became the capitals of some of the earliest known empires. STANDARD OF UR MESOPOTAMIAN ARTIFACT, 2600–2400 bce Excavated from the royal tombs of Ur in the 1920s, the Standard of Ur is a tapered box decorated with scenes. The original purpose of the artifact remains a mystery, but the images on the two side panels, dubbed the “War Side” and the “Peace Side,” form a narrative that offers a vivid insight into the different aspects of life in the ancient city. The scenes also include the earliest known image of wheels used for transportation. 33 34 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3 0 0 0 bce – 50 0 ce Ugarit OLD AND MIDDLE KINGDOMS Egypt was among the most enduring civilizations in the ancient world. With its succession of powerful rulers, unique religion and art, and trading networks, the culture exerted its influence in the Nile Valley and beyond for more than 3,000 years. d Cyprus r ite ra ne Nile e l Wa Delta - N di at ru n 2160 bce Hat-nen-nesu, capital of Lower Egypt until 2025 bce, today is usually known by its Greek name of Heracleopolis Heliopolis Hieraconpolis Kharga UPPER EGYPT 900 First Cataract unt Kurkur Dunqul MEDJA Elephantine to P 1200 a 1500 Se Dakhla Madu Ipet-isut (Karnak) Thebes Quseir d Naqada Abydos Deir el-Bahari Armant Etna Mersa Re 1800 z t er es 2100 e D N i le 2400 u Gebtu (Qift) Qaw Ikkur Baki (Quban) Miam (Aniba) NUBIA Wa Buhen Second Cataract Shaat S a h a r a Kerma OLD KINGDOM 2700–2180 bce Region of control Kingdom capital Pyramid Trade routes di el - ’A l laqi 2100 bce Large forts are built to assert power over Nubia after the region is conquered WAWAT Nile 2700 A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a S Asyut Meir TIMELINE 3000 bce 1640 bce Hyksos people conquer Lower Egypt with horsedrawn chariots of Deir el-Bersha By 2700 bce, a succession of rulers had centralized their power in Egypt and governed from the capital, Memphis. The grand pyramids built during this era were symbolic of their power. The valley prospered as merchants traveled into the Western Desert and along the Red Sea coast to ply their trade. However, in 2180 bce, a period of low flood and the ensuing famine resulted in Egypt splitting into two realms—Upper and Lower Egypt. 1 2 3 4 5 S i n a i f rn ul G te as Beni Hasan rn te rt es se e D 2550 bce Pharaonic power makes first contact with oasis settlements such as Bahariya Bubastis E Bahariya Dead Sea Tell el-Ajjul Memphis Dahshur El-Lisht Faiyum El-Lahun Hawara Heracleopolis LOWER EGYPT 1 Oasis Shechem Mendes Giza R AMESS ES II, PHAR AOH OF THE NE W K ING DOM , 12 7 9 – 1213 bce KEY Keben (Byblos) Jerusalem “The All-Lord himself made me great. He gave to me the land while I was in the egg.” The maps show the boundaries of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt and include the trade routes that linked the sites of oases, cities, the great temples, forts, and pyramids. a Megiddo Selima REGION UNDER EGYPTIAN CONTROL Se an 2580–2560 bce Egypt’s Great Pyramid is built in Giza W From c. 2700 to 1085 bce, Egypt’s kings, or pharaohs, ruled the Nile Valley for three long, separate periods, named by historians the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Egypt’s ancient civilization grew along the banks of the River Nile, which was the main artery for travel and trade. The river was also rich in fish and flooded annually, covering the banks with fertile mud, making for a highly productive agricultural region. While Egypt’s pharaohs ruled over this riverside zone, their influence spread much farther afield, mainly through land and sea trading expeditions, which became more widespread in the Middle and New Kingdom eras. The Egyptians developed their own system of writing, and the pharaohs bolstered their wealth by employing scribes to record goods traded and to ensure taxes were collected. The Egyptian people worshipped multiple gods and also regarded the pharaohs as deities, which lent spiritual weight to the ruling power. The strength of the pharaohs’ authority is evident in the impressive burial sites built during the ancient era, including the pyramids of the Old Kingdom and the colossal temples and tombs of the later kingdoms. Me Qatna Jordan EGYPT OF THE PHAR AOHS Ancient Egypt was the world’s first large, centrally ruled state. Agriculture flourished in the Nile Valley’s fertile soil, while trade yielded materials for building marvels like the pyramids. N u b i a n D e s e r t Third Cataract Four th Cataract Fifth Cataract 2 2040–1786 bce MIDDLE KINGDOM By 2040 bce, the rulers of Thebes had grown increasingly powerful and become rulers of all of Egypt. Their domain was slightly larger than that of the Old Kingdom, and their merchants traveled farther to establish new trade links. In 1640 bce, pharaonic rule ended (for just over a century) when the Hyksos people, from the Levant, conquered Lower Egypt. Additional region of control Hyksos invasion Trade routes Temple Fort Nubian chiefdoms EGYP T OF TH E PHAR AOH S GRE E C E t Mycenae oH u att sha sh E E M P I R E T I T H I T to Ha ttu sh as Carchemish h M es op Alalakh Niya Ugarit Zakros Kouklia S e a 1570–1085 bce Asyut il AN t er es Thebes Elephantine Baki (Quban) Gerf Hussein Kurkur Aksha First Cataract Beit el-Wali EGYPT Second Cataract REIGN OF AKHENATEN El-Derr Wa d REIGN OF RAMESSES II i e l ’A l l a qi R e Selima 1279–1213 bce Hittite Empire Battle Buhen N U B I A Kumma Semna 1353–1336 bce In the 14th century bce, Egypt lost some of its territory in Canaan to the Hittites of Anatolia, leading to decades of tension and sometimes warfare between the two peoples. The formidable ruler Ramesses II challenged Hittite power at the Battle of Kadesh, preventing further Hittite advances. Nekheb (el-Kab) UPPER WAWAT Sedeinga Soleb Sesebi Four th Cataract N u b i a n D e s e r t Kawa a S e Third Cataract Tumbos d 1570–1069 bce The vast complex at Karnak in Thebes is expanded with temples to deities such as Amun-Re and Mut ia CA 5 D Karnak Armant Kharga lon Amarna capital during Akhenaten’s reign Trade routes Hyksos siege by (Akhmim) Abydos Dakhla Timna Wadi Maghara Ipu e Ba ia In 1351 bce, Amenhotep IV came to the throne. He changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the sun god Aten, built a new capital named after himself, and declared that Aten was the only god. His principal queen, Nefertiti, was a powerful influence during his reign. Later pharaohs destroyed Akhenaten’s statues and removed his name from king lists. n er st Ea Akhetaten (El-Amarna) Istabl Antar N Temple Saqqara B a h r Yu s e f Kingdom capital Bahariya ra ha Sa Region of contact Campaign against Hyksos Kom Medinet Ghurab Henen-nesut We s t e r n D e s e r t 4 S i n a i Serabit el-Khadim gr 1285 bce Ramesses II and his troops rout the Hittites after being ambushed Hazor Jordan Tanis Pi-Ramesse Bubastis Heliopolis (Iunu) LOWER Giza EGYPT Memphis Ahmose of Thebes (r. 1549–1524) laid the foundations for the New Kingdom and took power after expelling the Hyksos from Lower Egypt in 1532 bce. Under later pharaohs, Egypt expanded its territory across the Mediterranean and reached the Fourth Cataract to the south. Trade increased, and renewed prosperity allowed the rulers to construct enormous temples. Region of control Tyre Akko (Acre) Gezer Jerusalem Ascalon Gaza Lachish Dead Sea Deir el-Balah Sharuhen Zawyet Umm el-Rakham 3 Byblos Megiddo c.1456 bce Kyrene to m Kadesh c.1285 bce Damascus M e d i t e r r a n e a n NEW KINGDOM Qatna NA Crete Enkomi Simyra Kition Maroni r es Kommos ph ot a at Knossos 1479–1425 bce During Thutmose III’s rule, Egyptian ships sail across the Mediterranean to Greece and Anatolia Karmi Cyprus Eu Ti is A n a t o l i a to Fifth Cataract nt Napata (Gebel Barkal) Pu N il e 1264–1244 bce Abu Simbel temple is built to commemorate Ramesses’ victory at the Battle of Kadesh NEW KINGDOM ◁ Queen Nefertiti The bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten, is believed to have been crafted by the sculptor Thutmose c. 1345 bce. The expulsion of the Hyksos led to the reunification of Egypt, ushering in the New Kingdom in 1530 bce. This was the third great era of Egyptian culture—a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement in the region. 35 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3 0 0 0 b c e – 50 0 c e THE FIRST ALPHABETS 4 1500–1050 bce The earliest alphabet—a system of symbols denoting all language sounds, both consonants and vowels— can be traced to c. 1500 bce, as what is known as Proto-Canaanite or Proto-Sinaitic. Some experts suspect it developed from a subset of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The people who used it passed the idea on to the Phoenicians, who had developed it into their own alphabet by 1050 bce. Being maritime traders, they took their alphabet around the Mediterranean. 200–300 ce Runes—alphabetic scripts made up of straight lines— develop in northern Germany and Scandinavia Med Crete Ugarit anean Se a o 250 bce Brahmi script (possibly influenced by syllabic or alphabetic scripts from the West) is used in India ta ia Harappa Susa 2050 bce By the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, some hieroglyphs have come to denote sounds, such as “m” (owl), “b” (lower leg), and “aa” (forearm) 3400 bce–100 ce Writing was first devised in Sumer. Sumerian scribes first used pictographs (picturelike symbols), but simplified these into wedgeshaped marks. These marks give the technique its name, which comes from the Latin cuneus—a wedge. From Sumerian cities such as Uruk, cuneiform spread across Mesopotamia, and peoples from the Hittites in Turkey to the Persians in Iran used it to write their languages. Cuneiform tablet Spread of cuneiform a d In Mohenjo-Daro 1700–1500 bce Proto-Canaanite, the earliest known alphabet, is thought to have traveled from the Nile Delta or Sinai Peninsula to the Levant 200 ce Arabic script develops in the early centuries ce, and may have evolved from the script of the Nabateans, who built the city of Petra in what is now Jordan ETHIO PIA 600 bce–100 ce Ancient Ethiopic (Ge’ez) evolves as an offshoot of South Arabian s an ge s Pataliputra SABA’ A F R I C A u G EGYPT Spread of hieroglyphs PICTOGRAPHS TO CUNEIFORM Persepolis a bi ra 3200 bce–400 ce Memphis A 1750 bce The Minoans of Crete write in their own version of hieroglyphs but also use an as-yet-undeciphered script called Linear A Ni le EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS Sumerian cuneiform es op A m iterr The Egyptians developed their hieroglyphs toward the end of the 4th millennium bce. Hieroglyphs are pictorial symbols representing ideas, syllables, or sounds. People used them mainly for carved temple inscriptions. Hieroglyphs fell out of use after the temples to the Egyptian gods closed in the 4th century ce, but this was not before the idea of hieroglyphic writing seems to have passed to Crete and Anatolia. 1 M 3400 bce Pictographs in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) represent the earliest known writing I Uruk S a h a r a Egyptian hieroglyphs Hattushash Troy Tell Brak LUWIA Syracuse 700 bce The Etruscans of northern Italy, borrowing from the Phoenicians and Greeks, develop their own alphabetic script 2 Mycenae S ll Gades GREEC E A 1050 bce The Phoenician alphabet contains 22 symbols denoting only consonants—these three are equivalent to the Roman “B,” “H,” and “S” Massalia Rome ITALY Phoenicianinfluenced alphabet Runic alphabets 1600 bce The earliest known writing in Greek is in the “Linear B” script of the Mycenaeans R O P E E U GAUL Spread of alphabets Proto-Canaanite and Phoenician alphabets BRITAI N 1050 bce–250 ce The peoples who traded with the Phoenicians, such as the Greeks and Etruscans, adapted the Phoenician alphabet for their own languages. The Roman alphabet, now used all over the world, derives from the script of the Etruscans. Exactly how the alphabet reached northern Europe, where it might have triggered the development of runic alphabets, remains unknown. y DENMA RK WESTERN ALPHABETS e 3 200 bce–9 ce The Romans take their alphabet with them as they conquer western Europe V 36 900 bce Alphabetic writing spreads south to become the ancient South Arabian script, centuries before Arabic took over 2600–1800 bce The origin and subsequent disappearance of the Indus Valley script are both mysteries, and its intricate symbols are not yet understood ▷ Never to be forgotten Hieroglyphs were painstaking to write and were not used for everyday purposes. They were used for inscriptions intended to last forever—and these, on the tomb of Nefertari, queen of pharaoh Ramesses II, appear new after more than 3,250 years. INDI A THE FIRST WRITING OLD WORLD ORIGINS Writing was invented independently in at least two places in the Old World—Mesopotamia and China. Egyptian and Indus Valley writing may represent another two instances of separate invention, or writing might have spread there from Mesopotamia. TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 4000 bce 3000 bce 2000 bce 1200 bce The earliest known Chinese writing is inscribed on “oracle bones” by fortune tellers Yel l o w 1000 bce 1 ce 1000 ce 1–500 ce Korean scribes try different methods of adapting Chinese characters to write their language ver Ri KOR EA Anyang CHIN A Ya n z gt eR ive JAPA N Nara r 650–800 ce Japanese scholars create scripts based on both classical and adapted Chinese characters THE FIRST WRITING Writing developed first in c. 3400 bce in western Asia, but also independently in China, Mesoamerica, and possibly the Indus Valley. From the start, symbols represented spoken language in different ways—either as words and ideas, the language’s sounds, or a mixture of both. By the 4th millennium bce, cities had developed in Egypt, China, the Indus Valley, and Mesopotamia. The societies that built these cities traded on a large scale and had complex, organized religions. Both of these developments encouraged literacy—for writing accounts and goods traded or for recording calendars and sacred lore. The earliest writing—in Mesopotamia—began as pictures scratched on damp clay tablets that were then baked in the sun to create a permanent document. Slowly, these evolved into “cuneiform” symbols made of wedges. Many surviving cuneiform tablets list goods or contain tax records, although there are also religious and literary works written with the technique. Around the same time, the Egyptians developed their hieroglyphs and later, the Chinese evolved their written characters, both of which were used for religious purposes initially. Alphabetic scripts, which originated in Sinai or the Levant, caught on widely as the Phoenicians disseminated their version. Alphabets needed only 20–30 symbols, as opposed to the hundreds used in syllabic scripts or the thousands in Chinese. “Do not answer back against your father.” 5 CHINESE CHARACTERS 1200 bce–220 ce From the late Shang Dynasty (1200–1050 bce), various scripts evolved in China. They were all logographic, meaning the complex symbols, called characters, denoted words or morphemes (the smallest unit of language that conveys meaning) rather than sounds. By the Han Dynasty (206 bce–220 ce), certain standard scripts had developed, one of which is the unsimplified script still in use outside the People’s Republic. Chinese script 6 INDIAN SCRIPTS Spread of Chinese script 268 bce–400 ce South Asia has a profusion of syllabic scripts, all descended from Brahmi, which dates back at least to Ashoka’s rule (268–232 bce) but whose origins are obscure. Brahmi may have developed indigenously or been adapted from alphabets, such as Aramaic, from western Asia. What is certain is that Indian writing has no known link with the mysterious and undeciphered script of the long-lost Indus Valley civilization. Indus Valley script Possible influence on Brahmi from the West FROM THE SUMERIAN INSTRUCTIONS OF SHURUPPAK— PERHAP S THE WORLD’S E A R L I E S T S U R V I V I N G L I T E R AT U R E , c. 2 6 0 0 bce MESOAMERICAN SCRIPTS WRITING OF THE OLMECS, ZAPOTECS, AND MAYA Civilizations in Mesoamerica invented their own writing systems, but they did not spread beyond the region. Inscriptions date back to the mysterious Cascajal Block, possibly carved by Olmecs around 800 bce. The Zapotecs used a pictographic script from at least 400 bce and were followed by the Maya, whose intricate symbols, or glyphs (right), combined logograms (denoting ideas) and syllabic script. Maya glyphs came into use c. 300 bce and remained current until the Spanish conquest (see pp.152–153). 37 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3 0 0 0 b c e – 50 0 c e 6 MYCENAEAN TRADE 5 1450–1100 bce HOMER’S TROY 4 c. 1300–1190 bce Homer’s epic poem the Iliad identifies Mycenae as the home of the legendary Greek warrior Agamemnon, hero of the war against Troy. Hisarlik, near the Aegean coast of Turkey, is the probable site of Troy. Archaeologists there have discovered evidence of a major battle dating to the late Bronze Age, but it is unknown if this relates directly to the Trojan War described by Homer. Ba lka ns A wealth of finds from Mycenaean settlements and graves indicates the kind of items traded by the people of the Greek Bronze Age. Raw materials such as copper and tin crossed the region by land and sea and were used in ornate Mycenaean metalwork. Archaeologists have also found numerous pottery storage jars, which were used to transport wine and oil. MYCENAEAN SETTLEMENTS c. 1600–1100 bce The Mycenaeans built their houses from a mixture of stone and mud-brick; clay tiled roofs were used at some sites. Their settlements were spread over much of Greece but concentrated near the major palace sites, such as Tiryns, Pylos, and Mycenae itself. The larger settlements acted as commercial and administrative centers and housed officials who were responsible to the palace. to 38 Mycenaean import routes Major Mycenaean palaces Mycenaean export routes Other Mycenaean sites Major routes within Mycenaean heartland Olympus T To s ou t he r n Ital h e s s a l y Orchomenus Ionian Islands G of Co Pe nt l y, Menelaion n a Vapheio in ia Sar d in i Se Phylakopi Thera a s e c.1627 bce The Thera volcano erupts, covering the Minoan settlement of Akrotiri in ash and preserving outstanding frescoes and other works of art Mel